Search Polymers    Search Monomers    My Searches   My Account   Tour Take the Survey
 
 
Introduction
CRC Press
CHEMnetBASE

Login
Password
Introduction

Introduction to Polymers: A Property Database Online


  • Conclusions

  • Polymers - A Property Database on the Web

  • Selected References

  • Preface

    The latest edition of Polymers: A Property Database is an improved version of an indispensable polymer reference work. The database is a comprehensive and in-depth collection of properties for a very wide range of polymers, both synthetic and natural and where polymers exist with subtle variations in structure, these are also covered in some detail. Processing grades are also described along with typical applications for each major polymer.

    Each polymer has a general properties section where very useful information such as chemical structure, synonyms, CAS registration numbers and monomers used in the polymerisation is given. The mechanical properties are particularly well presented and all source material is meticulously referenced.

    The database is well indexed (even more comprehensively in the online version) and extremely easy to use making this a very desirable addition to any researcher's library. Polymers are indexed by common name allowing ease of access even to those with only a basic knowledge of polymers, industrial/commercial names are also used where these exist. This is particularly useful for those working in industry or in multidisciplinary fields where polymers are used.

    Introduction

    Those of us who work with polymers and polymeric materials rely heavily on data regarding solution and bulk properties, and manufacturing procedures. These parameters usually can be found spread over different handbooks, encyclopedias, and the Internet. However, Polymers: A Property Database is one-stop shopping, whereby this information is now available from a single source. Entries range from a few lines for research polymers to encyclopedic submissions for more common polymers. (An online version of the Database for simplified data retrieval and entry updates is now available from Taylor and Francis, Publishers.)

    To produce this comprehensive Database, which conveniently can be used as a desk reference book, a double-column format was used with small, but easy to read font with spaced-out tables. Since main-chain or common polymer names are used as headers, arranged alphabetically in dictionary style, the Database is practical to use. (IUPAC approved nomenclature is given under a separate heading). To quickly locate a polymer, a comprehensive polymer name index is available.

    The Database contains a listing of polymer properties that are, for the most part, associated with polymer manufacturing, processing, and applications. As such, the Database contains other useful information in addition to polymer properties, not found in other source books; an example of this is given for nylon 6,6, a well-studied commercial polymer:

    Structural Formulae

    Additives

    Morphology

    Density

    Thermal Expansion Coefficient

    Latent Heat Crystallization

    Thermal Conductivity

    Specific Heat Capacity

    Glass Transition Temperature

    Melting Temperature

    Deflection Temperature

    Brittleness Temperature

    Surface Properties

    Solubility

    Transport Properties

    Melt Flow Index

    Intrinsic Viscosity

    Polymer Melts

    Permeability of Gases

    Permeability of Liquids

    Water Content

    Water Absorption

    Gas Permeability

    Mechanical Properties

    Tensile Modulus

    Flexural Modulus

    Tensile Strength Break

    Flexural Strength at Break
    Elastic Modulus

    Poisson Ratio

    Tensile Strength Yield

    Compression Strength

    Impact Strength

    Viscoelastic Behavior

    Hardness

    Failure Properties

    Fracture Mechanical Properties

    Friction Abrasion and Resistance

    Electric Properties

    Dielectric Permittivity

    Dielectric Strength

    Dissipation Power

    Magnetic Properties

    Optical Properties

    Refractive Index

    Molar Refraction

    Polymer Stability

    Thermal Stability

    Upper-Use Temperature

    Decomposition

    Flammability

    Environmental Stress

    Chemical Stability

    Hydrolytic Stability

    Biological Stability

    Applications and Selected References




    The Database also lists many types of polysaccharides, modified cellulosics, and other important biopolymers. Different types of polymers and polymeric structures are presented, such as inorganic polymers, blends, block copolymers, graft polymers, ionomers, elastomers, fibers, hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, structural foams, polymer composites, polysiloxanes, resins, and natural rubbers.

    For this second edition, an introductory chapter has been added that reviews polymer complexity as it relates to polymer properties. Furthermore, tabulated lists of polymer properties are given to serve as a guide in selecting appropriate test procedures.

    Polymer property data are now available on the Internet in a variety of tabular forms. The advantages and convenience of having a desk reference book of the magnitude of Database cannot be overstated. No other reference handbooks contain the caveats, descriptions, and explanations that are found in Polymers: A Property Database as exemplified in the above table.

    A. Importance of Polymer Properties

    Because of their high molecular mass, polymers, as compared to small molecules, have unique properties that are often difficult to predict. As such, some background knowledge of the physical chemistry of polymers is desirable for dealing with polymers and polymeric materials.

    Polymer properties, like solubility behaviour, are used as a guide on a laboratory scale when analyzing or characterizing polymers or when determining structure-property relationships. On an industrial scale, properties, such as melt viscosity or heat capacity, are important for establishing polymerization and processing conditions. A listing of properties is required for selecting polymers to meet specific applications.

    Polymers are ubiquitous as they are used in all applications, from consumer products to high-temperature industrial use to medical devices, under a wide-range of conditions. In modern polymer science and engineering, more complex structures, such as multilayer films, nanomaterials, electro-optical and electronic devices are being developed that require more specialized and complex testing for end-use performance evaluation. Furthermore, from knowledge of structure-property relations of polymers and polymeric materials, one can begin to design and tailor make polymers and complex polymeric structures to meet specific end-use performance requirements.

    It is sometimes difficult to accurately predict end-use performance characteristics of the final product using tabulated data of individual components. As a result, accurate measurements are those made on the final product itself, rather than using model polymers or components. In these cases, empirically derived measurements using the actual product, verified with authentic samples, may be the best option. It should be noted that most empirically derived data are trade secrets, and, as such, not available. Nevertheless, compilations of properties are still valuable.



    B. Polymer Complexity

    Because of polymer complexity, property variability must be taken into consideration. In this section, we will discuss possible sources of polymer inconsistency and offer suggestions to recognize and reduce these errors.

    Chemical or compositional heterogeneity refers to the chemical or structural difference among chains of the same polymer. Thus a measured property of a chemically heterogeneous sample will be an averaged value dependent upon sample source. For chemically homogeneous samples, property variability will not be a concern. In a similar fashion, polymers that are polydisperse in molecular weight have averaged property values, while monodisperse samples will give accurate data. Obviously, samples that are both chemically homogeneous and monodisperse will give the most accurate and precise values.

    As compared to synthetic polymers, almost all nucleic acids and mammalian proteins are compositionally (chemically) homogeneous and monodisperse, if not there would be no life; biopolymers carry highly specific and selective information. Mammalian polysaccharides, for the most part, are also compositionally homogeneous, but are polydisperse in molecular weight; whereas plant polysaccharides are polydisperse. Chemically modified cellulose (cellulosics) are typically both compositionally heterogeneous and polydisperse in molecular weight. Starches (α-amylose and amylopectin), another major class of polysaccharides, are highly polydisperse in molecular weight, but quite compositionally homogeneous. In addition, amylopectin and many other polysaccharides are highly branched, which may further complicate listed property values.

    Synthetic polymers can be quite complex and, as such, tabulated and measured property data must be interpreted with care. Homogeneous synthetic polymers are those produced from condensation polymerization reactions, in which all polymer chains are chemically indistinguishable from another. Even though these types of polymers show a finite polydispersity of two, accuracy and precision will not be compromised since all samples (and reference standards) will have the same degree of polydispersity. Lastly, synthetic polymers produced by addition polymerization (i.e., ionic, complex coordination catalytic, or free-radical copolymerization), will have the greatest amount of compositional heterogeneity, and with the exception of anionically polymerized samples, will also have a large molecular weight polydispersity. For these polymers, tabulated data must be interpreted with caution, unless users establish their own data sets with reference polymers obtained from the same polymerization conditions.

    Sequence distribution or polymer microstructure is the next higher level of complexity in which the average arrangement of monomers along a chain is considered. The polymerization mechanism and reactivity ratios of monomers dictate this parameter. Monomers can be randomly arranged along chains in the case of statistic or random copolymers or in the extreme form a block copolymers. In any event, the microstructure of reference polymers should be defined when properties are listed.

    Next in line of complexity is macromolecular architecture, or polymer configuration, in which the topological nature of the chain is of interest. Thus polymer branching can take on a wide range of configurations including short- and long-chain branching, and comb, star, and dendritic structures with or without comonomer segregation or blockiness. Because of the strong influence of polymer configuration on properties, this parameter needs to be defined, and care taken when comparing tabulated data to those of actual samples.

    In summary, polymers may have up to two or more distributed characteristics depending on the number of different monomers used in the polymerization, the type of polymerization mechanism, and whether or not the sample was fractionated during isolation. As a rough estimate, polymer "complexity" increases exponentially with the number of distributive properties, making it more difficult to measure accurate polymer properties.

    Some polymers are modified after polymerization; however, this process can be somewhat difficult to control. Because polymer chain segments can influence the chemistry of a neighboring groups. Chemical modifications are done mainly on cellulosics and other polysaccharides to tailor-make specific property characteristics. Thus tabulated property data given for cellulosics and polysaccharides represent average values of the entire sample ensemble of polymer chains that differ in composition. To complicate matters further, insoluble gels, comprised of three-dimensional networks, may form if chains are allowed to chemically or physically (via hydrogen bonding) react with one another, either during or after polymerization.

    Post-polymerization processes are also accomplished via vulcanization, irradiation, or through the addition of a low molecular weight cross-linking agent. The resulting polymer (i.e., rubber, elastomer, resin, or gel) in essence, is one super or giant molecule approaching infinite molecular weight. These viscoelastic materials have wonderful consumer, industrial, and aerospace end-use applications when properly formulated.

    The next level of polymer complexity is polymer blends and multicomponent systems. To adjust the glass-transition temperature, plasticizers are added, often times at high concentrations. To increase polymer strength, reinforced polymeric materials are used that consist of added inorganic material, the most common being carbon black or glass fibers. Laminated structures are also produced for increased material strength.

    High-value added, specialty products with controlled molecular weight, branching, or architecture are being developed for high-technology industries, most notably electronic and optical devices, printing inks, and coatings in the aerospace industry. Because of their specialized uses, most of these polymeric materials are not listed in this compilation.



    C. Regulatory Agencies

    Most industries issue testing protocols and polymer property specifications to the trade. To ensure uniformity, national regulatory agencies have formed to deal with standardized methods and testing approaches. In the United States, ASTM is the most prominent independent agency supported by industry with about 100 test methods in place specifically for polymers and polymeric materials. API specializes in the development of procedures for petroleum products, some of which are polymeric. In Britain, BSI is the key agency for testing, while in Europe, DIN procedures are followed. Many of these agencies are overseen by ISO, a federation of national regulatory bodies. (See Table 1 for complete names and acronyms.)

    Governmental departments of commerce, defense, and military are also involved in issuing protocols and specifications. For example, the FDA is responsible for establishing acceptable limits of extractable components from polymeric materials in contact with food and drugs.

    Table 1. Key agencies involved in standardized testing of polymers and polymeric materials under the umbrella of ISO.

    Abbreviation Organization
    API American Petroleum Institute
    ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
    BSI British Standards Institution
    DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung
    FDA Food and Drug Agency
    ISO International Organization for Standardization *

    *Global federation of national standards bodies representing 100 countries.





    D. Reference Polymers and Specialty Materials

    Sources of reference polymer standards that can be used for instrument calibration and validating methods are listed in Table 2. In the United States NIST is responsible for distributing a number of well-characterized polymer standards.

    These standards have well-defined chemical composition and molecular weight, and are also suitable for formulating materials for R&D. All reference standards and polymeric material should come with certificates of analysis. (Since water content in polymers, especially hydrophilic ones and polysaccharides, may affect properties, it is advisable to vacuum dry and properly store them to prevent moisture buildup and degradation.)

    Table 2. Sources of polymer standards used for instrument calibration, method development and verification, and formulating R&D samples

    American Polymer Standards Corp USA
    Gearing Scientific Ltd UK
    National Institute of Standards and Technology USA
    Polymer Laboratories Varian UK
    Polymer Source Inc Canada
    Polymer Standards Service (PSS) Germany
    Pressure Chemical Co. USA
    Putus Macromolecular China
    Sigma-Aldrich USA
    Tosoh Corporation Japan
    Waters Corporation USA




    E. Polymer Properties

    In this section we discuss and list polymer properties that are included in data tables of this book. Some properties reviewed in this section are not listed in this text, but they are included for completeness. Specific properties for certain classes of polymers are not given, especially those used for optical, electronic and magnetic devices.

    Much of this section and the book's content is based on van Krevelen's (1976) property schemes, with modification. His book should be consulted for more detailed discussions. Other books of interest are listed at the end of this chapter.

    Basic information that characterizes polymers is listed in Table 3. These properties can be estimated from the expected outcome of the polymerization, measured, or calculated from group contributions (see van Krevelen, 1976). Methods for measuring these properties can be found in the reference list (for example, see Barth and Mays, 1991; Brady, 2003; Wu, 1995). Some of the more important properties will be considered here.

    The most useful average molecular weights are the number- (Mn), weight- (Mw), and z-averages (Mz). These averages are easily determined from the molecular weight distribution obtained using size exclusion chromatography (Mori and Barth, 2001). Oftentimes just the viscosity-average molecular weight (Mv) is available, which can be conveniently determined from the measured intrinsic viscosity of the polymer in a given solvent at a specified temperature using tabulated Mark-Houwink coefficients. Alternatively, Mw can be determined from light scattering and Mn from osmometry.

    Table 3. Basic Polymer Information

    Property measured Remarks
    CAS registration number  
    Physical state at rt  
    Chemical composition of repeat units  
    Structural formula of repeat group  
    Comonomer molar ratios For copolymers
    Molar substitution For cellulosics
    Molecular weight of repeat unit  
    Statistical average molecular weights Mn, Mv, Mw, Mz, and polydispersity
    Percent added inorganic or carbon filler or plasticizer Polymer additives used to impart selected performance
    Polymer additives, e.g., antioxidants, UV stabilizers, etc.  
    Moisture level If applicable
    Branching, degree (frequency) and extent (length) Short- or long-chain branching if applicable, as estimated
    Polymer architecture (topology), other than linear or branched, if applicable graft, star, comb, or dendritic
    Crystallinity  
    Tacticity  
    Microstructure, i.e., monomer sequence distribution Block, random, or alternate
    Toxicity and stability Should be determined or at least estimated from structure of corresponding comonomers
    Environmental impact Must be known or at least estimated for safe disposal


    Branching, molecular topology, and comonomer sequence distribution along the chain are more difficult to estimate; these properties are best estimated by the chemistry of the polymerization procedure, with support from NMR measurements. Polymer toxicity and stability must be known or at least estimated from functional group and comonomer chemistry. It should be realized that polymer toxicity, to a first approximation, is lower, than the corresponding comonomer toxicity; because of the low polymer diffusion coefficient, macromolecules cannot readily pass through biomembranes, thus have limited bioavailability.

    The effect of molecular weight of a polymer in solution on its colligative properties, summarized in Table 4, is a well-established phenomeon. These properties are dependent on the number of macromolecules in solution, independent on molecular weight and chemical composition. In fact, the number-average molecular weight of a polymer can be determined by measuring one of its colligative properties.

    Table 4. Colligative Polymer Properties

    Property measured Remarks
    Freezing point depression MW dependent
    Boiling point elevation MW dependent
    Vapour pressure depression MW dependent
    Osmotic pressure elevation MW dependent


    Table 5 lists volumetric properties of polymers in the liquid or solid state as a function of temperature; these properties are related to the compactness of chains and the interaction of comonomers within and among neighboring chains. These properties are more dependent on chemical composition, than molecular weight. Volumetric properties also depend on factors influenced by comonomer sequence distribution, such as tacticity, branching, and polymer crystallinity.

    Table 5. Volumetric Properties

    Property measured Remarks
    Specific volume (reciprocal of specific density) Depends on polymer state
    Molar volume (reciprocal of molar density) Depends on polymer state
    Specific thermal expansivity Depends on polymer state
    Molar thermal expansivity Depends on polymer state
    Specific melt expansivity Applicable to crystalline polymers
    Molar melt expansivity Applicable to crystalline polymers


    Table 6 lists thermodynamic and calorimetric attributes of a polymer, while Table 7 deals with polymer solubility and cohesive energy. Except for molar entropy, all these properties depend mainly of chemical composition, rather than molecular weight. Furthermore, polymer crystallinity, in addition to the chemical nature of a polymer, plays a major role in dictating solubility behavior. In order to effect solubility in the case of crystalline or semicrystalline polymers, the solution must be heated near or above its melting point to break up crystalline regions.

    Table 6. Calorimetric and Thermodynamic Properties Including Transition Temperatures

    Property measured Remarks
    Molar entropy  
    Molar enthalpy  
    Molar heat capacity  
    Latent heat of crystallization  
    Thermal conductivity  
    Melting temperature, Tm Disappearance of polymeric crystalline phase
    Glass-transition temperature, Tg Onset of extensive macromolecular motion
    Secondary transition temperatures Other than Tm and Tg
    Deflection temperature (heat distortion) Highest continuous temperature material will withstand
    Vicat softening point Temperature at which a needle penetrates material
    Brittleness temperature  



    Table 7. Cohesive Properties and Solubilities

    Property measured Remarks
    Cohesive energy  
    Cohesive energy density Related to the "internal pressure" of a polymer in solution
    Surface and interfacial energy  
    Solubility parameter Equal to the square root of the cohesive energy density
    Good Solvency Good solvent imparts solubility via polymer solvation
    Nonsolvency Poor solvent cannot solvate polymer
    Theta temperature The temperature at which polymer-polymer, polymer-solvent, and solvent-solvent interactions are equal
    Theta solvent A solvent in which polymer-polymer, polymer-solvent, and solvent-solvent interactions are equal


    Light scattering and inherent viscosity measurements made at infinite dilution are used to determine polymer size parameters, conformation, 2nd virial coefficient, weight-average molecular weight, and long-chain branching parameters (Table 8). These are fundamental parameters that allow us to probe structural features of polymer molecules. These properties are dependent on molecular mass and shape, rather than polymer composition.

    Table 8. Dilute Solution Properties

    Property measured Remarks
    Intrinsic viscosity Measured quantity related to the hydrodynamic shape and molecular volume of a polymer in solution
    Mark-Houwink coefficients Coefficients related to the shape of macromolecules in solution.
    Molecular conformation Molecular shape parameter
    Specific refractive index Parameter needed for calculating Mw from light scattering data
    Polymer-solvent 2nd virial coefficient Determined from light scattering measurements
    Radius of gyration Macromolecular size parameter
    End-to-end distance Macromolecular size parameter
    Hydrodynamic volume Macromolecular volume parameter


    Melt index and viscosity are critical parameters needed for polymer processing. These and other polymer transport properties are listed in Table 9. As in the case of other viscosity measurements, these properties depend mainly on higher statistical molecular weight averages, such as Mw and Mz.

    Table 9. Transport Properties

    Property measured Remarks
    Melt viscosity Depends on molecular weight and chain entanglement
    Melt index Inversely proportional to viscosity
    Gas permeability across a polymer film or membrane Usually water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide, or specialty gases
    Diffusion coefficient Diffusion of polymer in a given solvent at defined conditions
    Water absorption Water content taken up at specified relative humidity and temperature


    Tables 10 to 13 list polymer characteristics directly involved with end-use properties: mechanical properties (Table 10), electric and magnetic properties (Table 11), optical properties (Table 12), and polymer stability (Table 13). (A more complete discussion of these properties is given in selected references at the end of this chapter.)

    Table 10. Mechanical Properties

    Property measured Remarks
    Adhesion (tackiness)  
    Ball indentation hardness  
    Bulk modulus (reciprocal of compressibility)  
    Coefficient of friction  
    Compression strength Force needed to rupture material
    Tensile creep Shape change of material caused by suspended weight
    Damping Absorption or dissipation of vibrations
    Dynamic mechanical behavior  
    Elastic modulus  
    Elongation  
    Fatigue Number of cycles required for fracture
    Flexural stiffness  
    Flexural strength at break Amount of stress needed to break material
    Fracture mechanical properties Fracture energy, fatigue resistance, fatigue crack growth, void coalescence
    Friction abrasion and resistance  
    Hardness Resistance to compression, indentation, and scratch
    Impact strength Energy absorbed by sample prior to fracture
    Indention hardness  
    Load deformation  
    Mar resistance  
    Mold shrinkage  
    Poisson's ratio  
    Scratch resistance  
    Shear strength Maximum load to produce a fracture by shearing
    Surface abrasion resistance  
    Tear resistance  
    Tensile strength break (yield) See Young's modulus
    Toughness Amount of energy to break a material (area under stress-strain curve)
    Ultimate strength  
    Viscoelastic behavior  
    Young's modulus(Tensile strength) Modulus of elasticity or tensile modulus



    Table 11. Electrical and Magnetic Properties

    Property measured Remarks
    Arc Resistance Time needed for current to make material surface conductive because of carbonization
    Dielectric constant Ability of material to store electric energy for capacitor application
    Dielectric permittivity  
    Dielectric strength Voltage required to break down or arc material
    Dissipation power factor (loss tangent) Watts (power) lost in material used as insulator
    Insulation resistance  
    Magnetic susceptibility  
    Resistivity  
    Volume resistivity  


    Tables 10 to 13 list polymer characteristics directly involved with end-use properties: mechanical properties (Table 10), electric and magnetic properties (Table 11), optical properties (Table 12), and polymer stability (Table 13). (A more complete discussion of these properties is given in selected references at the end of this chapter.)


    Table 12. Optical Properties

    Property measured Remarks
    Colour Physiological response; measured using three parameters: lightness, chroma, and delta
    Luminous transmittance Measure of plastic haze or clarity
    Molar refraction  
    Percent transmission Transparency
    Refractive index  
    Specular gloss Surface "flatness"; mirror "finish"
    Total internal reflectance UV-visible absorbance spectrum



    Table 13. Polymer Stability

    Property measured Remarks
    Accelerated aging studies  
    Biological stability Stability in the presence of microorganisms
    Burning rate  
    Chemical resistance Hydrolytic stability (extreme pH conditions), exposure to chemicals and solvents
    Flammability Flame resistance
    Flash ignition temperature  
    Long-term immersion  
    Permeability Amount of gas or liquid penetrating film
    Recyclability  
    Resistance to cold  
    Self-extinguishing temperature  
    Stress cracking Caused by weathering
    Thermal stability In addition to temperature, decomposition products are measured
    UV resistance Colour fading, pitting, crumbling, surface cracking, crazing, brittleness
    Weathering (environmental stress) Color and gloss change, cracks, crazing, weakening (see UV resistance)




    Conclusions

    Polymer science can be viewed as an applied branch of chemistry based on deliverable properties. It is of interest to note that most of these properties depend on just four attributes: 1. polymer molecular weight, 2. crystallinity, 3. chemical composition, and 4. macromolecular topology or architecture; furthermore, these parameters interact with one another in a complex manner. By varying these parameters, polymers can be tailor-made to fit a list of desirable characteristics.

    It is hoped that this polymer property database will serve as a guideline to help pave the way for the development of newer materials of improved characteristics.

    Polymers - A Property Database on the Web

    To maintain state-of-the-art property listings and to facilitate searches, Polymers - A Property Database published online in addition to hard copy. Space considerations have precluded the inclusion of indexes other than a name Index in the hard-copy version of the Polymer Database. In contrast, the online version contains searchable indexes on each of the fields present in the database, covering all text and numerical fields in the following categories:

    • General Description
    • Volumetric and Calorimetric Properties
    • Surface Properties and Solubility
    • Transport Properties
    • Mechanical Properties
    • Electrical Properties
    • Optical Properties
    • Polymer Stability
    • Applications and Commercial Products
    • References

    Upon entering the database you will be presented with the polymer search screen illustrated below (Fig. 1). It is from here that searches will be performed.


    Figure 1

    From the search window, design your search profile using text, numerical fields or a combination of both. Once your search has been performed the resultant hits are listed alphabetically by polymer name in the hit list window. Clicking on any one of the hits in the

    hit list window will result in that entry being displayed (Fig. 2).


    Figure 2

    In addition, the online version also contains a searchable monomers database. Monomers may be searched by a combination of text and structure searching via a downloadable browser plug-in (Fig. 3).


    Figure 3



    Selected References


    [1] Billmeyer, F. W., Textbook of Polymer Science, 3rd ed., Interscience Publishers, 1984 (classic book with excellent treatment of polymer properties)
    [2] Barth, H. G. and Mays, J. W., Eds., Modern Methods of Polymer Characterization, Wiley, 1991 (covers latest developments at the time of most methods)
    [3] Brady, Jr., R. F., Ed., Comprehensive Desk Reference of Polymer Characterization and Analysis, American Chemical Society-Oxford, 2003 (survey of characterization and analytical methods)
    [4] Brandrup, J., Immergut, E. H. ,Grulke, E. A., Abe, A, and Bloch, D. R., Eds., Polymer Handbook, 4th ed., John Wiley and Sons, 2005 (premier handbook of polymer science, listing virtually all polymer characteristics for most polymers)
    [5] Brydson, J. A., Plastics Materials, Butterworth Heinemann, 2000 (comprehensive treatment of plastics, their synthesis, properties, and applications)
    [6] Bueche, F., Physical Properties of Polymers, Krieger Publishing, 1979 (emphasis is on polymer physics)
    [7] Cowie, J.M.G. and Arrighi, V., Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, 3rd ed., CRC Press 2008 (excellent discussion of physical properties and applications)
    [8] Heimenz, P.C. and Lodge, T. P., Polymer Chemistry, 2nd ed., CRC Press, 2007 (comprehensive treatment of polymer chemistry - synthesis and physical chemistry)
    [9] Mark, J.E., Allcock, H. R., and West, R., Inorganic Polymers, Oxford, 2005 (physical chemistry and properties of inorganic polymers)
    [10] Mark, J. E., Ed., Polymer Data Handbook, Oxford, 1999 (compilation of major classes of polymers and their physical properties)
    [11] Mori, S. and Barth, H. G., Size Exclusion Chromatography, Springer-Verlag, 1999 (comprehensive treatment of SEC, theory and applications)
    [12] Munk, P. and Aminabhavi, T. M., Introduction to Macromolecular Science, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, 2002 (emphasis on polymer physical chemistry)
    [13] Nielsen, L. E., Polymer Rheology, Marcel Dekker, 1977 (introductory text on polymer rheology)
    [14] Richardson, T. L. and Lokensgard, E., Industrial Plastics: Theory and Applications, Delmar, 1996 (practical overview of some important properties and polymer processing)
    [15] Carraher, Jr., C. E., Seymour/Carraher's Polymer Chemistry, 7th ed., CRC Press, 2007 (popular introduction to polymer chemistry)
    [16] Seymour, R. B., Engineering Polymer Sourcebook, McGraw Hill, 1990 (good overview of physical properties of engineering polymers)
    [17] Sperling L. H., Introduction to Physical Polymer Science, 2d d., Wiley-Interscience, 1992 (good treatment of polymer physics and properties)
    [18] van Krevelen, D. W., Properties of Polymers, 3rd ed., Elsevier, 1990 (in-depth treatment of polymer properties, best resource available)
    [19] Whistler, R., Industrial Gums, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1973 (although outdated, gives solid background on the chemistry and properties of cellulosics and polysaccharides)
    [20] Wu, C. S., Ed., Handbook of Size Exclusion Chromatography, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, 2003 (covers all aspects of this important technique).


     
    Polymers 2013 Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group
    All Rights Reserved
    (CDP1)